Before becoming advisor to Alexander the Macedonian’s father, Phillip, Aristotle used to live on Lesbos for some time. It is also the birthplace of Aristotle’s student, famous philosopher Theophrastus.
Son of Hermes and Issa, Prilid, also lived on Lesbos. He predicted Troy’s defeat via a wooden horse.
Filomed, a famous strongman of the island, was defeated by Odysseus.
Alcaeus of Mytilene, as well as another poet Sapho, are included in the canonical list of nine lyric poets by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria.